What is GA3
Gibberellic acid (also called Gibberellin A3, GA, and GA3) is a hormone found in plants and fungi. Its chemical formula is C19H22O6. When purified, it is a white to pale-yellow solid.
However, plants produce low amount of GA3, therefore this hormone can be produced industrially by microorganisms. Nowadays, it is produced by submerse fermentation, but this process presented low yield with high production costs and hence higher sale value. One alternative process to reduce costs of the GA3 production is Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) that allows the use of agro-industrial residues.
Gibberellic acid is a simple gibberellin, a pentacyclic diterpene acid promoting growth and elongation of cells. It affects decomposition of plants and helps plants grow if used in small amounts, but eventually plants develop tolerance to it. GA3 stimulates the cells of germinating seeds to produce mRNA molecules that code for hydrolytic enzymes. Gibberellic acid is a very potent hormone whose natural occurrence in plants controls their development. Since GA regulates growth, applications of very low concentrations can have a profound effect while too much will have the opposite effect
Gibberellins were discovered by Japanese plant pathologists studying “bakanae” disease (“foolish seedling”) of rice, in which seedlings grow elongated and die. In 1898 Shotaro Hori demonstrated that it was caused by a fungus, now known as Gibberella fujikuroi. In 1926 Eiichi Kurosawa reported that a chemical produced by the fungus caused the symptoms, and that the substance was heat-resistant, not losing its activity after 4 hours at 100°C (212°F). In 1935 Teijiro Yabuta first isolated a non-crystalline solid and named it Gibberellin. In 1938, Yabuta and Yusuke Sumiki first isolated a crystalline compound from the cultured fungus.
Since this time, 79 different gibberellins have been isolated, many of these from the seeds of a wide variety of species. Gibberellic acid-3 (GA-3) is the most widely used, and is produced commercially by growing the fungus in huge vats and then extracting and purifying the GA-3.
Plant growth regulator Gibberellic Acid (GA3) used on plants for:
– Increase plant or crop yield
– Enable greater photosynthesis and plant metabolism
– Allow the production of bigger leaves, and bigger root system
– Increase cell growth in stems,leaves and roots
– Used for production of elongated stems in plants grown as standard and half-standard horticulture crops.
– Can be used to increase stem length in a number of flower crops grown for the flower trade.
– Increase flower size
– Improve establishment and growth of young plants produced from cuttings, seed or plugs.
– Used to help plants suffering nutrient and growth deficiencies